Stablecoins: Definition, Operation, and Types.

by Mar 20, 2023Blockchain Technology, Defi0 comments

Stablecoins are digital currencies whose value is linked to another coin, good, or financial instrument. The high volatility of the most widely used cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin (BTC), has made investing in cryptocurrencies less suitable for everyday transactions. Stablecoins seek to address this issue.

An outline of stablecoin’s history.

Digital assets continue to have low liquidity because the crypto industry is still in its infancy. And high volatility is caused by inferior liquidity.

Because of the frequent price swings, high volatility continues to be an issue for the widespread adoption of crypto assets.

Stablecoins were developed as a result of all of this. They are digital assets that, as mentioned above, are pegged to an external asset class and produced using blockchain technology.

Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies with lower volatility in this way.

BitUSD and NuBits are two of the earliest stablecoins.

In 2014, the initial stablecoins were released. Instead of using fiat money as collateral, BitUSD and NuBits used other cryptocurrencies. These two initiatives are still ongoing.

BitUSD was the first stablecoin ever created, according to CoolWallet’s Complete Guide to Stablecoins, published on July 21, 2014. On the BitShares blockchain, it was created as a token.

According to CoolWallet, Dan Larimer (EOS) and Charles Hoskinson (Cardano), two individuals who will become major players in the cryptocurrency industry, created the ground-breaking digital asset.

BitShares’ BTS core token was backed by BitUSD, which was collateralized by digital assets. In a smart contract, it was secured and used as collateral. But it’s also crucial to remember that BitUSD lost parity with the U.S. dollar in late 2018, which drew harsh criticism. Its live price fluctuates between 80 cents and a dollar.


When NuBits first emerged in September 2014, it was governed by the contentious Seigniorage system. This ultimately resulted in it losing 94% of its value. It is a stablecoin that many claims offer an instructive case study for how stablecoins operate.

NuBits has experienced two significant crashes since its inception. 2018 and 2016, respectively. Nevertheless, it increased to a peak value of more than $1.20. Investors’ panic and struggle to convert their Bitcoin into fiat led to it. Only a small portion of the $1 it should be worth, or about 6 cents, is being paid for it now.

The crash of NuBits taught us that stablecoin demand should rise during bear markets if the cryptocurrency market is functioning efficiently. In crypto bull markets, it would also be expected that stablecoin prices would experience rapid, consistent downward pressure. The instance mentioned above demonstrates how market participants display rational behavior.

Additionally, bear in mind that the holders of a token advertised as a stablecoin whose peg fails may consider legal action.

How are stablecoins operated?

A pegging mechanism is necessary to make a coin that tracks the value or price of another good. There are many ways to accomplish this, and most of them depend on using another asset as collateral. There is still no such thing as a guaranteed peg, though some methods have proven more effective than others.

Stablecoins backed by fiat.

A fiat-backed stablecoin maintains reserves of a fiat currency, such as the USD or the GBP. For instance, each BUSD is backed by a real U.S. dollar being held as collateral. At the pegged rate, users can then convert from fiat to a stablecoin and vice versa. Arbitrageurs will swiftly restore the token’s price to the predetermined rate if it starts to deviate from the underlying fiat.

Let’s assume that the BUSD rate is higher than $1. Arbitrageurs exchange U.S. dollars for BUSD and then resell the BUSD on the market for a profit. As a result, there are more BUSD available for purchase, bringing down the cost to $1 once more. When BUSD trades below $1, traders buy BUSD and exchange it for USD. Consequently, the price of BUSD rises back to one due to increased demand.

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Cryptocurrencies-based stablecoins.


Stablecoins that are backed by crypto operate similarly to those backed by fiat. Cryptocurrencies now serve as collateral instead of using dollars or another currency as reserves. Crypto-backed stablecoins typically over-collateralize the reserves to protect against price fluctuations because the cryptocurrency market is so unstable.

Cryptocurrency-backed stablecoins use smart contracts to control minting and burning. As a result, users can independently audit the contracts, increasing the process’s reliability. On the other hand, several crypto-backed stablecoins are managed by decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs), where the public can vote on changes to the project. You’ll either need to get involved in this situation or leave it up to the DAO to decide what’s best.

Consider an illustration. You must provide $150 in crypto with a 1.5x return as collateral to mint $100 of a DAI pegged to the U.S. dollar. Once you have your DAI, you can use it how you want. It could be moved, used to make investments, or left alone. You must return the 100 DAI if you want your collateral back. However, your collateral will be liquidated if it falls below a predetermined ratio for collateral or the loan’s value.

Holders are encouraged to exchange their stablecoin for the collateral when the price falls below $1. As a result, the coin’s supply is reduced, and its price increases to $1. Users are encouraged to create the token when it is worth more than $1, which lowers the price and increases supply. DAI is one such instance, but all crypto-backed stablecoins rely on a combination of game theory and on-chain algorithms to encourage price stability.

Algorithms generate stablecoins.

In contrast, algorithmic stablecoins do away with the requirement for reserves. Instead, algorithms and smart contracts control the number of tokens that are issued. Compared to stablecoins backed by cryptocurrency or fiat, this model is much less common and more difficult to implement.

If the price drops below the fiat currency it tracks, an algorithmic stablecoin system will decrease the token supply. Locked staking, burning, or buy-backs could be used to accomplish this. New tokens go into circulation to devalue the stablecoin if the price exceeds the value of the fiat money.

Which issues are stablecoins resolving?


Although Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies have opened up the market to new opportunities, their volatility does pose a threat to adoption by the general public. Stablecoins are now more crucial than ever because the cryptocurrency market is highly speculative. As a result, prices will remain unstable until a significant development with mass adoption occurs.

Stablecoins are intended to be stable for a considerable time, regardless of which category they fall under. Enabling people to store value in the stablecoin will enable them to turn into the ideal safe-haven asset during significant fluctuations. Furthermore, because the trader maintains complete custody of the assets, this will also provide comfort.


The next use case, trading, is closely related to stablecoins’ stability feature. Many businesses are now developing fiat on-ramps and off-ramps to make buying cryptocurrencies simpler, but using these on-ramps and off-ramps comes with a cost. Because of this, stablecoins are a top option for anyone looking to lessen their exposure to cryptocurrencies without completely cashing out. Despite Bitcoin having the largest market cap, Tether (USDT), a stablecoin backed by the U.S. dollar, has the highest trading volume among all cryptocurrencies. In spite of the fact that stablecoins are supposed to have a stable price, we can observe that stablecoin prices fluctuate when there is high volatility. Major stablecoins have experienced price increases during market crashes, primarily due to people’s reluctance to completely exit the market. Exposure to stablecoins allows traders to wait for the ideal moment to re-enter the market. Stablecoin pairs are now available on most exchanges, if not all, due to their rising popularity among cryptocurrency traders.

A report earlier this year by Binance, one of the world’s biggest and most well-known cryptocurrency exchanges, revealed a rising demand for USD-collateralized stablecoins. The 24-hour quote asset volumes driven by stablecoins increased from 35 points 78 percent in May 2018 to 60 points 55 percent in May 2019, indicating a steady increase in demand.

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The most promising cryptocurrency use case is, without a doubt, this one. Several businesses have started accepting cryptocurrencies as payment, most notably Bitcoin. But whether people are at ease using cryptocurrencies for payment remains a major question. The volatility of cryptocurrencies is a major deterrent to people using them as payment methods, and they are still primarily used for speculative trading. When Laszlo Hanyecz agreed to pay 10,000 Bitcoins for two delivered Papa John’s pizzas on May 22, 2010, it became known as Bitcoin Pizza Day. This day will go down in history as the benchmark for how far Bitcoin has advanced. Naturally, the price of Bitcoin was significantly lower than it was now when he spent it. To make a point, however, it should be noted that few people would aspire to succeed in Laszlo Hanyecz. Regarding payments, stablecoins are a good option because they provide the same advantages of custodianship and blockchain without the volatility.

Numerous businesses already promote the use of stablecoins. The use of the USDC stablecoin is being promoted by Coinbase Commerce, the company’s payment division. To pay for items like coffee, clothes, and even baby wipes, Terra, a Korean stablecoin startup, attracted over 240,000 customers in just 40 days.

Financial Services

Financial services like remittance, settlement and escrow are other essential uses for stablecoins. Foreign employees who want to send money home must pay exorbitant fees and wait a long time for the recipient to receive the funds. Due to their lack of middlemen, exorbitant service fees, or time spent using the blockchain, stablecoins have the potential to play a significant role in cross-border payments and remittances. This is true even without having to worry about volatility. Because of the limitations imposed by bank business hours, settlements take time, whereas blockchain operates continuously.

What drawbacks exist with stablecoins?

What are the disadvantages of stablecoins?

Stablecoins still have limitations despite the possibility that they could facilitate widespread cryptocurrency adoption.

  • It is not a given that stablecoins will keep their peg.

 There have been many large projects that have failed, despite the fact that some of them have a successful track record. A stablecoin can experience a sharp decline in value if it consistently struggles to keep its peg.

  • Absence of transparency.

 Not all stablecoins release comprehensive public audits; many only offer periodic certifications. These are completed on behalf of the stablecoin issuers by independent accountants.

  • Stablecoins backed by fiat typically have higher levels of centralization than other cryptocurrencies.

 A central entity keeps the collateral that outside financial regulations may also govern. As a result, they have considerable control over the coin. Furthermore, you must believe in the issuer’s ability to back up its claims.

  • Coins that are crypto-collateralized and those that do not depend greatly on their community to operate

. Open governance mechanisms are common in cryptocurrency projects, allowing users to participate in creating and managing each one. As a result, you must participate or have faith that the developers and community will manage the project responsibly.

How do stablecoins and fiat money compare?

Values of stablecoins are correlated to the value of a specific currency. A stablecoin typically fixes its rate on a one-to-one basis. For instance, in the U.S., a dollar-pegged stablecoin may have a unit value of $1.

Stablecoins use a variety of techniques to keep their pegged rates constant. To keep their value fixed, stablecoins may be backed by cash, cash equivalents, commodity values, or the value of other financial instruments. Some even employ sophisticated algorithmic programs to maintain the peg by managing supply, though this tactic isn’t always successful.

The goal of a stablecoin is to keep the price constant in a particular currency. The value of other cryptocurrencies, for example, may fluctuate in relation to the U. S. dollar. In contrast, a stablecoin’s price shouldn’t fluctuate about the currency to which it is pegged. A stablecoin with a $1 seeks to keep its value at $1; nothing more, nothing less.

We’ll see, though, that this peg isn’t always reliable. Stablecoins are partly different from cash due to this, which is why.

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What sets stablecoins apart from fiat currency?

A government or central bank neither issues nor oversees stablecoins. Stablecoins are, therefore, a cryptocurrency that has been privately issued.

Stablecoins are not recognized as “legal tender” in most countries. Even if a stablecoin’s value is tied to a particular currency, authorities or businesses might not accept it as a reliable means of payment.

That currency does not always back the currency to which a stablecoin is pegged. It could be very important. Take TerraUSD (UST), which sought to keep the U.S. dollar-pegged exactly at one-to-one. S. dollar, which lacked a backing in dollars. To keep UST theoretically pegged at $1, it instead relied on an algorithmic formula and another cryptocurrency, Terra (LUNA), which would algorithmically change its available supply (also known as “mint and burn”).

Then it stopped working. UST’s value fell to less than one U. in May 2022. S. penny.

Stablecoins to purchase in 2023.

(USDT) Tether

The name “Tether” refers to one of the first stablecoins. 2014 saw the release of it. As of 2023, it is the most valuable stablecoin in market capitalization. One of the top 5 cryptocurrencies by market cap has long been Tether. Tether’s price has a 1:1 correlation with the U.S. dollar. The entity that created Tether allegedly backs all units with U.S. dollars. Police, however, are still dubious about these claims.

U.S. Dollar Coin (USDC)

The USD Coin stablecoin entered the top 5 cryptocurrencies by market cap, and it is also pegged 1:1 to the U.S. dollar. Dollar Coin (USDC) is a venture of Coinbase and Circle. Reserves of fiat money and U.S. Treasury securities support the USDC supply. Given that Coinbase is one of the most popular cryptocurrency exchanges in the world, purchasing USDC in 2023 will undoubtedly be a wise decision.

True U.S. Dollar (TUSD)

True USD, a stablecoin linked to the U.S. dollar, was introduced in 2018. The TUSD’s collateral is distributed among several bank accounts held by trust companies. TUSD has maintained a 1:1 USD/TUSD ratio for a long time. The top 50 cryptocurrencies by market cap include TUSD.

BUSD, the currency of Binance

Binance The USD stablecoin is a well-known example and is backed 1:1 by the U.S. dollar. The exchange with the highest trading volume, Binance, is the one that developed this cryptocurrency. Users of the exchange’s branded currency are rewarded, giving BUSD a consistent and significant boost. One of the top ten cryptocurrencies by market cap is BUSD.

Dai (DAI)

Dai is the most well-known stablecoin backed by a cryptocurrency. The organization known as Maker DAO is in charge of creating Dai. The price of DAI is fixed to the USD price despite being backed by tokens built on the Ethereum platform. 2019 saw the introduction of the multi-collateralized DAI. Dai has one of the highest market caps among cryptocurrencies. As of 2023’s first day, it ranks 10th out of the top 100 cryptocurrencies.

MIM stands for Magic Internet Money

Magic Internet Money (MIM), a stablecoin, has a 1-to-1 soft peg to the U.S. dollar. The asset was unveiled in 2021 by the cryptocurrency lending marketplace Abracadabra Money. MIM successfully maintains the $1 price, except for occasional minor price increases or decreases.

Reservation of Rights (RSV)

In 2020, the Reserve Ecosystem unveiled the Reserve token (RSV), a stablecoin backed by digital currency. At first, the price wasn’t all that stable, but by the end of 2021, it did. Since the end of 2021, the RSV price has been close to $1.

Neutrino Dollars (USDN)

Neutrino USD is among the most frequently used algorithmic stablecoins. As of the beginning of 2023, USDN ranks among the top 100 cryptocurrencies by market cap. The token’s exchange rate to the USD was set at 1:1. However, it did lose value in the fall of 2022. Despite this, there is still a lively market for the coin. The price drop from $1 to 50 cents could be seen as a buying opportunity.

USDD is a decentralized currency

The semi-algorithmic stablecoin known as Decentralized USD is popular. In 2022, it first appeared on Tron. Collateral is provided by the TRON DAO Reserve and consists of various crypto assets. As of the start of 2023, Decentralized USD is one of the top 50 cryptocurrencies by market cap.

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